Introduction of Pomegranate
Pomegranate is one of India’s commercial fruit plants. It is native to Iran. Pomegranate is known as a crop tolerant of drought, but periodic irrigation is mandatory for the manufacturing of commercial yield. Water concentrations and optimum irrigation systems rely on a multitude of variables such as soil type, tree size, physiological stage, and potential evaporation. The tree usually requires little additional irrigation. The frequently acquired from cultivators and less from formal studies.
Climate for Growing Pomegranate
Pomegranate prefers dry weather. A prolonged warm and dry climate is needed during fruit growth. The optimum fruit-friendly temperature is 38 ° C. In a humid climate, pomegranate butterfly significantly damages the fruits and does not grow sweetness. It’s tolerant of winter hardiness and very drought. It can develop up to 1850 meters above sea level.
Under semi-arid circumstances, grenade develops well and can grow up to an altitude of 500 m. It thrives well in warm, dry summer and cold winter, provided there are available irrigation facilities. Especially during fruit growth and maturation, the tree needs a warm and dry climate. The pomegranate tree is deciduous in low winter temperature regions and in tropical and subtropical environments is evergreen or partly deciduous. In the dormant stage, it can tolerate frost to a significant extent but is injured at temperatures below 11°C.
Soil for Growing Pomegranate
It develops under a broad variety of soils and can tolerate to some extent even alkalinity and salinity. In profound heavy loam and well-drained soils, however, the highest outcomes are achieved. It is susceptible to fluctuations in soil moisture that cause fruit cracking, a severe issue with this crop. Well-drained, sandy loams to deep loamy or alluvial soils are appropriate for grenade production.
Preparation of Land for Pomegranate Planting
While pomegranates may grow in a broad variety of soil, profound, heavy loamy soils and soils with excellent drainage ability are the finest form of soil. It can tolerate to some extent alkalinity and salinity. The presence of moisture in the soil leads to cracking of fruit and reduced yield.
In the event of pomegranate watering, the climate and plant specifications are taken into account. In case they are planted as mrig-bahar, irrigation (planting during mid-May, June-July) is performed frequently until the monsoons are placed in. Irrigation must be performed in winter once in 2 weeks and in summer weekly.
Drip irrigation is the preferred irrigation technique because it helps to save water by 44 percent. The average annual water requirement is 20 cm through gout irrigation. Approximately 64 percent of water is saved when using sugarcane mulch. The output is also improved by 30-35%.
In temperate regions, high-density planting is accepted. A distance of 5-6 m. Usually followed in northern India as well as in the plains of the Deccan plateau. High-density planing with spacing results in 2 to 2.5 times more yield than when the standard planting distance of 5×5 m is reached. is accepted. A spacing of 2.5 meters×4 m was doped by farmers. Closer spacing improves the incidence of disease and pests.
Methods of growing Pomegranate
- This technique of cultivation is more frequently followed. The distance between plants relies on the sort of climate and soil. A distance of 4-5 meters is preserved in the event of very light soils.
- Pits of dimensions 60X60X60 cm are dug about a month prior to planting and kept open under the sun for a fortnight. And they are left open for solarization for a period of two weeks.
- High-density cultivation is followed for pomegranate plantation. Hence, weeding must be done manually
- Pomegranates bear three types of flowers, viz. male with rudimentary ovaries, hermaphrodite with a well-developed style.
Pest and Disease maintenance in Pomegranates
Pests such as borers of fruit, aphids, mealybugs, moths sucking fruit and whitefly affect grenades. Effective spraying of pesticides such as deltamethrin, dimethoate, malathion, etc.
The primary illnesses affecting pomegranate plants are leaf spot and fruit rot. It would take care of the leaf spot by spraying 2 grams per liter of mancozeb during the monsoon. In September and October, applying 2 grams per liter of Kavach would stop fruit rot.
When fully ripe, grenades have to be picked. For a longer period of time, allowing the fruits to remain on the trees can trigger aril breakdown. They begin to bear fruit 1-2 years after they have been planted. But only after 2-3 years of planting can commercial production begin. Harvesting the unripe fruits would result in quality downgrades. Generally, fruits are prepared to be picked 120-130 days after sets in fruit. The calyx at the distal end closes at maturity. The sides also get suppressed and the fruits turn yellowish red in color.
Pomegranate farming can be very profitable in dryland areas where plenty of sunlight is available. But, it has some bacteria and root disease problems. You should continuously watch for symptoms. If you ‘re going for large scale pomegranate cultivation then it is advisable to consult professionals.