Pollution affects every living thing on the planet. Attempts to seriously reduce pollution continue at a faster pace with the advent of a growing concern for global warming.
Recycling, remediation of water, soil and air become federally mandated in order to stem further pollution problems. Many industries are now required to replace outdated pollution controls with state-of-the-art equipment that returns pollution to ambient status.
Some of this is done through the use of biological systems that breakdown pollutants to safer levels. This translates to cleaner air, soil, and water, all most necessary to the agricultural industry’s continued success.
What is the Agricultural Biotechnology?
Agricultural biotechnology is a set of scientific methods for the plant, animal and microorganism improvement.
Scientists have created alternatives based on an awareness of DNA to boost agricultural productivity. Biotechnology, starting from the capacity to recognize genes that can bring benefits to certain plants and the capacity to work very exactly with these features, enhances the capacity of breeders to improve plants and livestock.
How is Agricultural Biotechnology used?
Genetic engineering: Scientists have learned from one organism to another how to transfer genes. Genetic modification (GM), genetic engineering (GE) or genetic enhancement (GI) have been called this. Regardless of the name, by inserting genes (DNA) from another organism, the method enables the transfer of helpful features (such as resistance to illness) into a plant, animal or microorganism. To date, virtually all plants enhanced with transferred DNA (often referred to as GM crops or GMOs) were created to help farmers boost productivity by decreasing crop damage from weeds, illnesses or insects.
Molecular markers: Traditional breeding includes selection on the basis of visible or measurable characteristics of individual crops or animals. By examining an organism’s DNA, researchers can pick crops or animals with a desirable gene, even in the lack of a noticeable characteristic, using molecular markers. Breeding is, therefore, more accurate and more effective.
For instance, the International Tropical Agriculture Institute has used molecular markers to acquire bruchid (a beetle) resistant cowpea, disease-resistant white yam, and Cassava resistant mosaic disease cassava, among others.
Another use of molecular markers is to detect undesirable genes that in future generations can be eliminated.
Molecular diagnostics: Molecular diagnostics are very accurate and specific techniques for detecting genes or gene products. In agriculture, molecular diagnostics are used to diagnose crop/livestock illnesses more appropriately.
Vaccines: Vaccines derived from biotechnology are used in animals and humans. They may be cheaper than traditional vaccines, better and/or safer. They are also stable at room temperature and do not need refrigerated storage; this is a major benefit for tropical smallholders. Some are fresh vaccines that give protection against certain infectious diseases for the first time. Biotechnology, for instance, has been used in the Philippines to create an enhanced vaccine to safeguard bovine animals and water buffalo from hemorrhagic septicemia, a major cause of death for both species.
Tissue culture: Tissue culture is plant regeneration from disease-free plant components in the laboratory. This method makes it possible to reproduce disease-free crop planting material. Citrus, pineapples, avocados, mangoes, bananas, coffee and papaya are examples of plants generated using tissue culture.
How long has Biotechnology been used in Agriculture and food production?
In 1990, the first biotechnology food item (an enzyme used in cheese manufacturing and a baking yeast) emerged on the market. Farmers have grown GE plants since 1995. In 2003, seven million farmers were planting biotech plants in 18 countries— more than 85% of them resource-poor farmers in the developing world. In developing nations, nearly one-third of the worldwide biotech crop region has been cultivated.
Will Agricultural Biotechnology have Economic and Social Impact?
A secure and adequate supply of food, cultivated in an eco accountable manner, is vital to humanity. Like any technology, there will be financial and social effects on agricultural biotechnology. Since their introduction, enhanced plants have been used securely using biotechnology, with advantages such as reducing pesticide use. Agricultural biotechnology is only one factor among many that affect farmers and other developing world citizens ‘ health and welfare. As biotechnology continues to develop, it is essential to identify the role it should play in society through factual and open public discourse.